Equine disease outbreaks for fourth quarter of 2012

Nasal discharge in a weanling foal with febrile EHV-1 respiratory tract infection.
Nasal discharge in a weanling foal with febrile EHV-1 respiratory tract infection. © Gluck

The International Collating Center in Newmarket, England, and other sources reported the following disease outbreaks for the fourth quarter of 2012*.

One report of contagious equine metritis was received from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The causal agent, Taylorella equigenitalis, was detected in two stallions, one of whom had been used for breeding in Germany the previous year.

In a national survey in Italy, 47 of 34,464 blood samples were positive for antibodies to Trypanosoma equiperdum, the cause of dourine with no reports of associated clinical disease.

Strangles was reported in Ireland (nine cases), Sweden (four outbreaks), Switzerland (one case), and the USA.

Equine influenza was reported from France, Germany (one case), the UK (three outbreaks), and the USA. France recorded the disease on three premises involving 10 Connemara ponies, two of whom died. The three outbreaks were epidemiologically linked to ponies purchased in Ireland.

Equine herpesvirus-1 related diseases were reported by France, Germany, Japan, the UK and the USA. Three outbreaks of EHV-1 respiratory disease were confirmed in France, with three premises and eight horses involved. The USA reported numerous cases/outbreaks of the disease in several states.

Abortion due to EHV-1 was recorded in France (two cases), Germany (single case), Japan (single case), and the USA (two cases). EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy was reported in France, the UK, and the USA. France reported six cases. Two outbreaks were recorded in the USA, at an Illinois racetrack and a Minnesota horse farm. Of six cases identified at the racetrack, five were euthanized and one recovered. Of seven horses on the premises in Minnesota, five became neurologic, one of which was euthanized. The UK reported one outbreak in a thoroughbred training yard that involved four cases, one of which was euthanized.

Respiratory disease associated with EHV-4 infection was reported by France (13 outbreaks), Germany (two cases), Japan (13 cases), Sweden (seven cases), and the UK (one case). The UK reported one case of EHV-4 abortion.

Cases of infection with equine herpesvirus-2 and herpesvirus-5 were diagnosed in several states in the USA.

Equine infectious anemia was confirmed in Canada with 21 cases: in the Yukon (eight), Alberta (two), and Saskatchewan (11). Three positive cases were diagnosed in the UK on two premises with the source of infection believed to have been a shipment of horses from Belgium in 2008.

Equine piroplasmosis was recorded in France (endemic), Switzerland (one case), and the UAE (endemic).

One additional outbreak of vesicular stomatitis (New Jersey serotype) was diagnosed in the USA, bringing the 2012 total to 36.

Forty-two cases of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis were confirmed in the USA, bringing the annual total to 213. The highest numbers of cases were recorded in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Florida. West Nile encephalitis was reported by Italy and the USA. Thirty outbreaks were confirmed in Italy, with cases of clinical disease on 13 premises. Prevalence of clinical cases was 23 percent, with a case-fatality rate of 20 percent. The USA reported nine additional cases, bringing the annual case total to 654. Texas (117), Louisiana (62), Pennsylvania (50), California (46), and Oklahoma (42) had the highest numbers of cases. The disease was recorded in 42 states.

Five fatal cases of Hendra virus infection were diagnosed in Australia: three in the Rockhampton area and two in the Cairns area in Queensland.

Salmonellosis was diagnosed in Germany (three cases), Ireland (one case), and the USA (cases/outbreaks in several states).

Kentucky, USA, confirmed two cases of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis, and sporadic cases of enteritis due to Clostridium perfringens type A and Lawsonia intracellularis.

The USA also confirmed 15 cases of leptospiral abortion, outbreaks of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in an increasing number of states, and outbreaks of Rhodococcus equi infection. Japan reported a case of tetanus, and Germany reported a case of rotaviral enteritis.

*Third Quarter Report for Australia

The above material was published in Equine Disease Quarterly, which is funded by underwriters at Lloyd’s, London, brokers and their Kentucky agents.


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