Mini horses for the blind … to guide or not to guide?

Andi Mills and Jericho
Andi Mills and Jericho. Mills rode across the southwest in 2007, qualifying her for Long Rider Guild membership.

Last year,  miniature horses were formally recognised as service animals in the US, alongside guide dogs. Andi Mills is an accomplished Long Rider who is now blind. She has a guide dog named Mr Tibbs. Mills provides a perspective on the relative merits of dogs and miniature horses as service animals. She fears the public may be less accepting of minis.  

In 2007, I completed an equine journey of 1528 miles across the American Southwest. The ride qualified me and my riding companion as Long Riders and full members of The Long Riders Guild. The Long Riders Guild is the premiere authority on Equestrian Explorations which meet certain criteria, one of which is 1000 or more miles on a single equestrian journey.

They recognize qualifying Long Riders worldwide, both historically and current, who have done their Long Rides on almost every continent. To date, Antarctica is the only continent which has not yet had a qualifying ride.

I am also blind. Being both blind and an avid equestrian gave me an acute interest and insight into the concept of miniature horses as guide animals. As an equine trainer, I understand the tremendous potential of the small horses as service animals.

Having ridden nearly all of my life, horses have been a defining part of my identity. Six months after returning from my most recent horseback journey, I lost my vision and learned that it was a permanent condition. I was more devastated by the fact that I would no longer be able to have the horses in my life at the level I was accustomed, than I was by the fact that I had lost my vision.

CuChullaine O’Reilly, one of the founders of the Long Riders Guild, suggested that I check into an experimental program using miniature horses as guide animals for the blind. He thought it would be a perfect situation for me as I was grieving more about losing my connection to horses than I was over the loss of my vision. I thought it was a fabulous idea and set about checking into the matter.

Miniature guide horse Cuddles pauses as a car turns while she and Dan train in Franklinton, North Carolina.
Miniature guide horse Cuddles pauses as a car turns while she and Dan train in Franklinton, North Carolina. © Todd Sumlin, Charlotte Observer / The Guide Horse Foundation

I discovered some very interesting facts during my research. One thing that the Guide Horse Foundation points out is: “Guide horses are not for everyone, but there is a strong demand for guide horses among blind horse lovers, those who are allergic to dogs, and those who want a guide animal with a longer lifespan.”

A guide dog has an average working life of about eight years. At that point, the blind handler must retire his partner, usually due to aging factors, and retrain with another dog. The bonding process has to be forged with the new partner and the new team must learn to read each other and effectively communicate with one another.

With a guide horse, with a lifespan of thirty plus years, a blind handler would be able to avoid the changes and adjustment to a new partner every seven or eight years. In most cases, one guide horse would last one handler most of his lifetime.

Horses that are well trained tend to be extremely calm in tumultuous situations. Throughout history, horses have been used successfully on the frenzied front lines of the battlefield. Police horses are trained to deal with riot control and crowd control. They can be conditioned to traffic sounds, loud noises, explosive sounds such as firecrackers, gunshots, and vehicle backfires and they remain calm.

Guide horses, or equine service animals, are trained and desensitized in the same manner that police and military horses are trained.

Although horses are flight animals by nature, specific individual horses can be trained to override the flight instincts when trained properly, exposed and desensitized by someone who understands natural equine responses.

Mr Tibbs checks on Ando Mills during a hospital procedure.
Mr Tibbs checks on Ando Mills during a hospital procedure.

Horse’s eyes are located on the sides of their heads which gives them an excellent range of vision. They can see almost 350 degrees, and because of independent eye movement they can detect danger with either eye. Horses have excellent night vision and can see well in darkness.

Horses have extreme memory capability. They can remember a dangerous ordeal and the outcome of it for many years, and often for their lifetime. Being prey animals, their lives in the wild depend on that ability.

Horses become very focused on their job and, when properly trained, are not easily distracted while working.

Horses are also known to be cautious and naturally safety conscious. They do very well identifying and negotiating obstacles and show remarkable ability to reason out the safest way to get beyond a challenging situation. They have a strong sense of direction.

Unlike dogs, who have pads on their feet and must wear shoes in order to protect their feet from hot asphalt, sharp objects, concrete or the brine and salt used on icy roads in winter, horses have hooves that are more able to withstand these hazards.

They can, however, wear rubber shoes or boots on slick indoor surfaces to protect the floors and to give them better footing on slippery surfaces.

The mini-horses have an abundance of stamina and endurance. They can be trained to eliminate at specific times and at specific locations, just as a dog can be. They are, in so many ways, perfectly suited to the job of guide or service animals.

Those opposed to the concept of mini-horses as guide animals have valid points as well. Horses are not suited physically to climbing many steps on a regular basis. A spiral staircase would be out of the question, and going up or down twenty flights of stairs when an elevator in a business office is not functioning would definitely have its drawbacks.

Miniature horses need to live outdoors even when trained to work for periods of time inside buildings. Therefore, they would not be a good choice for someone who lives in a high rise apartment building in the middle of a metropolitan city. They are herd animals and would fare better with a companion animal. A goat or another miniature horse would work well.

They can fit into an automobile, although not as easily as a dog, but finding a person who is not hesitant to transport a small horse in their vehicle might be a challenge. Public transportation could also be an issue.

At the time I was checking into the possibility of applying for a guide horse, I realized that the program was on hold due to some pending legislation that would, if passed, limit the definition of “service animal” to canines only, by the American Disabilities Act (ADA).

On July 10, 2010, it was approved, and, for a time, the wonderful idea of a guide horse was no longer a possibility.

I went to Guide Dogs of America, in California, and trained with my canine partner, Mr Tibbs.

He is a wonderful guide and I love the freedom, companionship and independence that he affords me. Although I am a guide dog user, I am still tremendously impressed with, and in favor of guide horses as service animals where they are appropriate.

In 2011, the law in the United States was changed again.

Mr Tibbs keeps an eye on Andi.
Mr Tibbs keeps an eye on Andi.

This time it revised the recent 2010 amendment to the ADA to, once again, include miniature guide horses. I was glad to hear that the mini-horses had been allowed back under the description of service animals.

During the time I have used a guide dog, I have come up against several issues that make me wonder about the practicality of using guide horses.

Even with a dog that is commonly known as a service animal, I have come across many accessibility issues.

I am concerned that, with a guide horse, it might even be more of an issue.

I would hate to see the wonderful option of an equine guide be undermined by ignorance and prejudice. Anytime a disabled person finds a way to overcome their disability and get on with their lives in a productive and independent manner, I am thrilled. Although I was precluded from applying for a guide horse due to the timing of the pending legislation, I would certainly still consider it, should something prevent Mr Tibbs from guiding me.

To satisfy my own curiosity, I picked some random people to poll in order to get a feel for the climate of acceptance concerning guide horses. Some people were quite rude.

When I asked one man how he would feel about dining in a restaurant with a guide horse quietly standing underneath a neighboring table, his response was, “If I wanted to eat with livestock, I’d go to a barn!” Another said, “What will that lead to, guide hogs?”

Andi Mills
Andi Mills

One restaurant owner said that he would oppose admitting guide horses under any circumstances. “It’s bad enough that I am forced to tolerate dogs in my establishment, but horses would absolutely detract from the atmosphere and overall dining experience of my restaurant,” he said.

America is no longer primarily an agrarian society. The days of dependence on horses for cultivation, pulling conveyances, or for transportation, are gone. In the US, the only exception to that will be found in some isolated areas where fundamental religious orders still rely on horses to farm and continue to use them in their daily lives.

People in urban areas can live their entire lives without ever touching a horse.

In Europe, there would be issues of accessibility into certain areas as well. I think in both the US and in Europe, the concept might be more easily accepted in rural areas. I don’t see this as a practical option for someone who must spend large amounts of time in metropolitan areas or traveling to major cities on a regular basis.

Overall, I am all for miniature horses being used for guide animals for the blind. It is my opinion that they would work very well in certain circumstances but would be terribly impractical in others.

On a case to case basis, I would love to see this option available to the blind and visually impaired. To limit possibilities, is to limit our lives.


Andi Mills –


Latest research and information from the horse world.

5 thoughts on “Mini horses for the blind … to guide or not to guide?

  • June 20, 2012 at 4:27 pm

    What an interesting and well written article. The author brought up potential issues I’d never even considered.

    I was saddened by the response some of the public had to guide horses and the point “People in urban areas can live their entire lives without ever touching a horse”, saddened me even further. The comment is very true and demonstrates how removed some people are from nature and animals.

    • June 21, 2012 at 2:51 am

      Thank you Amber. Until I suddenly lost my vision, I had not considered many aspects of blindness. Have a wonderful day.
      Andi Mills, LRG

  • June 20, 2012 at 6:25 pm

    Miniature horses are not recognized as service animals in the US, though they were PRIOR to the change in 2011. They are in a separate section of the ADA, not within the definition of service animal. Only dogs can be service animals under the Americans with Disabilities Act. Businesses must generally make allowances for the use of miniature horses specially trained to assist the disabled, but their use is not as protected as that of service animals and businesses may decide whether or not to permit them based on their size which they cannot do with service dogs.

    The Amendment to the ADA (the ADAAA) was passed in 2008 and it did not affect the definition of service animal, which is not defined in statutory law. The primary purpose of the ADAAA was to expand the definition of disability. The change in definition of service animal, the only change in that definition since the ADA was passed, was made in regulations implementing the ADA, regulations authored by a regulatory agency, not Congress. What it did was restrict the rights of people with disabilities using miniature horses to assist them not return rights to them or give them rights in the first place.

    There is currently a bill before our Congress that will remove all federal funding for enforcing the section pertaining to miniature horses, which will mean if a person with a mini is discriminated against, they will have to file suit on their own, at their own expense, if they wish to pursue the matter. It passed the House with 60% and is expected to do the same in the Senate.

    I’ve been a horsewoman for 40+ years and a dog person for 13 years (with my first service dog). Horses are intelligent, but dogs are more so. Dogs are more capable of problem solving and intelligent disobedience. They are also easier to proof against distraction. Dogs are pack animals, working for a common goal. Horses are herd animals, hoping to get lost in the crowd so the predator eats the other guy.

    So far as paws go, you are far more likely to use a guide or service animal on tile or linoleum than on terrain so rocky it would injure a dog’s paws. A dog’s pads will not slip on slick surfaces like a horse’s will. So it’s the mini horse that needs the special foot gear (specially manufactured sneakers, for traction), not the service dog.

    Dogs toilet less frequently and generate less volume of waste than miniature horses. Dogs can curl up into small spaces, under chairs and under tables. Horses, even minis, cannot.

    A standard table is about 29″ to 30″ high while a typical mini is 34″ to 38″ high. They do not stand quietly under tables while their owners dine. They stand beside the table restricting traffic flow, and with their head level with the dinner of the diner at the next table, snorting at that level when something tickles their nose, while my dog sneezes discretely at my shin and not at someone else’s dinner.

    While a horse has a greater field of vision, a dog has more field than the human he is assisting and the dog has far superior visual acuity than a horse. A lab, for example, has acuity nearing that of humans. A horse tends to be far sighted and has poor accommodation (ability to shift focus). Overall, the dog has the superior vision despite the smaller field of vision.

    It’s a charming notion, but not a practical one for a person who genuinely needs a service animal as opposed to one who wants an excuse for a horse.

    • June 21, 2012 at 2:42 am

      Dear Kirsten,
      I am sure that there will be as many opinions on this topic as there are people who read the article. I have done my best to express some of the pros and cons on both sides of the subject. As stated by the Guide Horse Foundation, “Guide Horses are not for everyone.” I would say, based on your respons, that they would not be a logical option for you. I do however, feel that my last line in the article explains my stand. “To limit our possibilities is to limit our lives.” I still defend the right of individuals to choose the option that best works for them. Peace and blessings to you.
      U.S. Department of Justice
      Civil Rights Division
      Disability Rights Section
      Miniature Horses
      In addition to the provisions about service dogs, the Department’s revised ADA regulations have a new, separate provision about miniature horses that have been individually trained to do work or perform tasks for people with disabilities. (Miniature horses generally range in height from 24 inches to 34 inches measured to the shoulders and generally weigh between 70 and 100 pounds.) Entities covered by the ADA must modify their policies to permit miniature horses where reasonable. The regulations set out four assessment factors to assist entities in determining whether miniature horses can be accommodated in their facility. The assessment factors are (1) whether the miniature horse is housebroken; (2) whether the miniature horse is under the owner’s control; (3) whether the facility can accommodate the miniature horse’s type, size, and weight; and (4) whether the miniature horse’s presence will not compromise legitimate safety requirements necessary for safe operation of the facility.
      ADA Information Line
      800-514-0301 (Voice) and 800-514-0383 (TTY)
      24 hours a day to order publications by mail.
      M-W, F 9:30 a.m. – 5:30 p.m., Th 12:30 p.m. – 5:30 p.m. (Eastern Time)
      to speak with an ADA Specialist. All calls are confidential.
      For persons with disabilities, this publication is available in alternate formats.
      Duplication of this document is encouraged. July 2011

  • September 23, 2015 at 2:41 pm

    Hi all,
    Thank you Andi for an insight to your kind of world.

    Amber seems to be less exposed to the real world of the needs of people with disabilities but she obviously accepts and respects their position.

    “I’ve been a horsewoman for 40+ years and a dog person for 13 years (with my first service dog).”
    Kirsten seems a little negative and a little biased against these miniature horses. However based on her own experiences it does show that the horses are less accepted by the general public.

    What would happen if dogs were totally stupid and could not be used as guide dogs and horses had to fill the position? “We” would “all” have to adjust. Remember there was reluctance to accepting guide dogs originally. Legislation made “us” rethink our attitude to guide dogs.

    My attitude is, if it is available and we can use it, then USE IT. So what is wrong with using a full sized horse or a monkey or as one person from your survey mentioned a “hog”?

    As for your survey, I am amazed and disgusted at the attitude (especially the rudeness) of the people you surveyed. It probably would have made me contemplate suicide.

    I can see ok, but a spinal injury put me in a wheelchair. I am amazed to find what is open/accessible to me and what is available to me to use. I thank those ahead of me who paved the way to make my life more liveable.

    BTW all restaurants are cramped. None cater for space for dogs, horses or even wheelchairs. Other establishments do not even cater for the disabled person’s carer, let alone animals.

    I took part in a 3 day workshop where I became closely acquainted with a blind man with a lab and a disabled woman with her male fulltime carer.

    The woman was so severely disabled that the carer had to light her cigarette and place it in a holder, bring her drinks at appropriate times, cover her or uncover her while she slept even though the hotel was air conditioned. At check in the receptionist tried to insist that they had to have separate rooms and pay full price for both, citing restricted space in one room. After some negotiating the hotel conceded, put them in a deluxe suite and even gave them a discount. The issues should not have arisen in the first place.

    The blind man was not charged for accommodating the dog but was read the riot act. The hotel accepted no responsibility for the dog. The owner had to take care of the dog and any required cleaning etc, must not sleep on bed etc. Little did they know that it is a must that guide dogs must sleep on their own mat to prevent catching disease from the floor. (I added this only for readers who are not acquainted with guide dogs/animals).

    Bring on the dogs! Bring on the horses! Bring on any animal or any aide or modification!

    As for the others, live and let live!



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