The International Collating Center in Newmarket, England, and other sources reported the following disease outbreaks in four quarter of 2013*:
- Outbreaks of strangles were reported by Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden, and the USA. Denmark confirmed the disease in 15 of 50 horses in a riding school of which two had to be euthanized. Four outbreaks were recorded in France. One case was diagnosed in Germany. Strangles was considered endemic in Sweden and the USA with numerous outbreaks confirmed in several US states including but not exclusive of Indiana, Kentucky, North Carolina, and Virginia.
- Germany, the UK and the USA recorded outbreaks of influenza. Isolated cases of the disease were diagnosed in Germany (one outbreak) and the UK (two outbreaks). The USA reported outbreaks in several states, California, Indiana, and New Jersey, among others, with horses exhibiting signs of varying clinical severity.
- The USA was the only country to report limited serological evidence of equine arteritis virus infection in breeding stock in a few states.
- Equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 (EHV-1, -4) related diseases were recorded in France, Germany, Ireland, Japan and the UK. Respiratory disease caused by EHV-4 was confirmed in France (12 outbreaks), Germany (seven cases on four premises), and the UK (five outbreaks with limited numbers of affected horses). Abortions due to EHV-1 were reported from Germany (one outbreak), Ireland (four outbreaks), Japan (three cases on two premises), Sweden (one outbreak), the UK (two outbreaks), and the USA (three outbreaks). Most affected premises had isolated cases of the disease.
- EHV-1 related neurologic disease was confirmed in France (one outbreak in a riding school) and the USA (two outbreaks). One occurred at a racetrack and was associated with a non-neuropathogenic genotype strain of the virus. The second US outbreak occurred at a riding school: Four horses died or had to be euthanized, and five other febrile in-contact horses were also confirmed infected with a neuropathogenic genotype strain of EHV-1.
- A limited number of cases of EHV-2 and EHV-5 infection were reported in the USA.
- Reports on equine piroplasmosis were received from France (endemic) and the USA (Theileria equi infection in one Quarter Horse racehorse).
- Germany and the USA reported isolated cases/ outbreaks of Salmonella infection. One case was recorded in Germany, and 13 cases of Group B salmonellae involving multiple premises were confirmed in the USA.
- Equine proliferative enteropathy due to Lawsonia intracellularis was reported in foals in several states including Kentucky (16 cases) and Ohio (one case).
- The USA recorded one case of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis in Texas.
- Cases of clostridial enteritis due to C. perfringens type A were reported from several states in the USA. Two cases of C. difficile were also diagnosed, both on premises in Kentucky.
- Abortion due to leptospiral infection was recorded in France (one case) and the USA (six cases).
- During the fourth quarter, the USA confirmed 40 cases of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis out of an annual total of 183 from 22 states. South Carolina (49), Florida (34), and Georgia (25) had the highest number of cases for 2013.
- Reports of West Nile Virus encephalitis were received from the USA. Over a three month period, 201 cases were diagnosed in a total of 41 states. The greatest number of cases was diagnosed in Texas (60), Oklahoma (41), and Montana (27).
- Equine Hendra virus infections were reported in Australia during the 3rd quarter of 2013. Isolated cases occurred on four separate premises in New South Wales and on one premises in Queensland.
- Switzerland reported a single case of atypical myopathy.
*Third Quarter Report for Australia
Source: Equine Disease Quarterly, which is funded by Lloyd’s, London, brokers and their Kentucky agents.